Additional Reading and Resources

1. Costello K, et al. Recognizing nonadherence in patients with multiple sclerosis and maintaining treatment adherence in the long term. Medscape J Med. 2008;10(9):225.

2. Derwenskus J, et al. Future treatment approaches to multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;122:563-77.

3. Karussis D. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and the various related demyelinating syndromes: a critical review. J Autoimmun. 2014;48-49:134-42.

4. Lublin FD, et al. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: the 2013 revisions. Neurology. 2014;83(3):278-86.

5. Marcus JF, et al. Updates on clinically isolated syndrome and diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis. Neurohospitalist. 2013;3(2):65-80.

6. Polman C, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 2011;69(2):292-302.

7. Simon JH. MRI outcomes in the diagnosis and disease course of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;122:405-25.

8. Sormani MP, et al. Can we measure long-term treatment effects in multiple sclerosis? Nat Rev Neurol. 2015;11(3):176-82.

9. Tanasescu R, et al. Advances in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Biomed J. 2014;37(2):41-9.

10. Toosy A, et al. Symptomatic treatment and management of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;122:513-62.

11. Turner AP, et al. Injection anxiety remains a long-term barrier to medication adherence in multiple sclerosis. Rehabil Psychol. 2009;54:116–121.

12. Wong J, et al. Adherence to multiple sclerosis disease-modifying therapies in Ontario is low. Can J Neurol Sci. 2011;38:429-433.


American Academy of Neurology –

The Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers –

National Multiple Sclerosis Society –

Multiple Sclerosis Association of America –

Multiple Sclerosis Foundation –

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke –





Challenges in MS Management


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